The rose of the north, the city of 700 years, Chiang Mai. Northern Thailand has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The remains of bronze age settlements have been found at several sites, including Phayao and Soppong. Two thousand years ago the Lawa, now a remote and little-visited hilltribe, were the dominant culture. The first related Thai culture to colonize the area lived in Northern Burma, and spilled into Western Thailand, where they are still found today and known as the Tai Yai (high (or big) Thais). The province of Mae Hong Sorn still has a preponderance of these peoples. The origins of modern Thai peoples (who make up 80% of the population of Thailand) are obscure and the subject of much debate. Until recently, it was believed that the Thais originated in Southern Mongolia, and were pushed southeast by the expansion of the Chinese empire. More recently, evidence has come to light suggesting that a race known as the Austro- Thais in Southeast Asia were among the first people to develop agriculture and an advanced civilization which spread first north into southern China, then re-colonised their former territory in a southern migration several centuries later. Whichever theory is correct, there was, without doubt, contact and eventually conflict between Thai and Chinese, which continued for many centuries. The Thai civilization was first threatened in the 9th Century BC by the Tartars of Central Asia, who over a period of 600 years split the Thais into three groups. One group migrated southwest to colonize easterb Burma and western Thailand, and became known as the Shan or Tai Yai (mentioned above). Another group moved east to the Gulf of Tonkin, and the third, destined to be the modern day inhabitants of Thailand, moved less far, to the southern part of what is now Szechuan in southwest China. Here, they established a number of city-states, which although at the time independent, came more and more under the sway of the developing Chinese empire. During this period, Buddhism became accepted as the religion of the Thais, introduced by Sinhalese monks from Sri Lanka. In the following centuries the Thais attempted to extend their control into the south of the Chinese empire, but eventually were conquered and made a Chinese province under Kublai Khan in 1253 AD. Many Thais still live in an area of southern Yunnan known as ‘Sipsong Panna’. The conflicts described above had caused a steady trickle of Thai people southwards and across the Maekhong River into northern Thailand, where they settled particularly in the areas now occupied by the cities of Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Sukhothai. Here they would come into contact with two Indian based cultures. The Khmers, whose pineapple shaped chedis can be seen throughout central Thailand, were based in Cambodia, and had been extending east and northwards. The Mons, another culture with Indian roots, were established further west and north. Northern Thai Variety Home: Northern Thai Center of news, knowledge, travel and entertainment.>>> Lanna : The Northern Region of Thailand >>> The land of the million rice fields. Implying that the kingdom was very prosperous, Lanna literally means one million rice fields. Today, upper part of northern of Thailand is composed of the provinces Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Mae Hong Son, Phayao, Phrae and Nan.>>> However, this region once belonged to the dynamic and influential Lanna Kingdom. Moreover, the town of Hariphunchai (today call Lamphun) was the capital city of this region before the period of Lanna, until being colonized by King Meng Rai of Chiang Rai. Subsequently, he christened it the Kingdom of Lanna, and declared Chiang Mai as The capital as the capital city in 1296 A.D.>>> The Lanna way of life differs greatly from the rest of the Thailand on account of its unique cultural heritage. Moreover, forestay abounds in the areas where the four main rivers, The Ping, The Wang, The Yom and the Nan also have their sources. Ultimately, these four rivers converge to become the mighty Chao Phraya River, the largest artery of Thailand.>>> Calling themselves” Khon Muang” these ancient people of Lanna have their own characteristics of language, costumes, and cuisine that altogether make up the Lanna culture. Concurrently, their religion and architecture indicate a close link to Buddhism. Today, Lanna has become a major northern tourist attraction with is tradition villages, lifestyles, colorful clothing, and fabulous handicrafts-especially embroidery and silverware. Visitors will agree that a Thai journey is not complete without a visit to Lanna. >>> Chiangmai >>> On the Ping River basin,700 kilometers away from Bangkok is the home of Chiang Mai , the second largest metropolis in Thailand that established by King Meng Rai ,Prince of Chiang saen in 1296 A.D.>>> Nowadays, this great capital of Lanna Kingdom still maintains spirit of Lanna wisdom, culture and art. You can see it in the gorgeous temples, like wat Chiang Man, the first temple which built by king Mengrai, Wat Prasing, Wat Chedi Luang, Wat Jet Yot and more.>>> Besides, Chiang Mai is also the center for those traditional ceremonies including flower festival in February, Song klan Festival in April, Inthakhin (Ancient City Pillar) Festival, Visakha Puja Day in May and Loy Krathong in November. All these excited festivals and ceremonies are happened throughout the year! as well as the number of fine handicrafts, weaving, woodcarving, silverware and pottery, it’s a highly recommended destination for shopping and entertainment.Northern Thai Variety Home: Northern Thai Center of news, knowledge, travel and entertainment.>>> NTV Tour (TAT Travel License NO. 23-0398), Established in 1996 by Ms. Wandee and Mr. Kasin, offer clients a wide variety of travel packages that suit all budgets and entertainment preference. The tour company is well recognized not only in Thailand, but abroad. The company's reputation for providing reliable and one-on-one services has contributed greatly to its success! >>> NTV offer numerous tour package for all group sizes , such as jungle trekking, bamboo rafting, a snake show and the always popular elephant show. Would you like to organize a seminar in Thailand? NTV Tour specializes in providing seminar services for up to 1,000 persons! >>> Ms. Wandee has over 20 years of experience in this. >>> Ms.Wandee welcome you to NTV ‘s services and our staff looks forward to hearing from you. poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poetpoem poetry literature library book reading poetpoem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet poem poetry literature library book reading poet
Poetry as an art form may have predated literacy. Some of the earliest poetry is believed to have been orally recited or sung. Following the development of writing, poetry has since developed into increasingly structured forms, though much poetry since the late 19th century has moved away from traditional forms towards the more vaguely defined free verse and prose poem formats. Early history --- Poetry was employed as a means of recording oral history, storytelling (epic poetry), genealogy, and law. Poetry is often closely identified with liturgy in pre-literate societies. Many of the scriptures currently held to be sacred by contemporary religious traditions with their roots in antiquity were composed as poetry rather than prose to aid memorization and help guarantee the accuracy of oral transmission in pre-literate societies. As a result many of the poems surviving from the ancient world are a form of recorded cultural information about the people of the past, and their poems are prayers or stories about religious subject matter, histories about their politics and wars, and the important organizing myths of their societies. Poetry as an art form may predate literacy Thus many ancient works, from the Vedas (1700 - 1200 BC) to the Odyssey (800 - 675 BC), appear to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies. Poetry appears among the earliest records of most literate cultures, with poetic fragments found on early monoliths, rune stones and stelae. The oldest surviving poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh, from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (in Iraq/Mesopotamia), which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, papyrus. The Epic of Gilgamesh is based on the historical king Gilgamesh. The oldest love poem, found on a clay tablet now known as Istanbul #2461, was also a Sumerian poem. It was recited by a bride of the Sumerian king Shu-Sin, who ruled from 2037-2029 BC. The oldest epic poetry besides the Epic of Gilgamesh are the Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey and the Indian Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. The longest epic poems ever written were the Mahabharata and the Tibetan Epic of King Gesar. Ancient thinkers sought to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulting in the development of "poetics", or the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as the Chinese through the Shi Jing, one of the Five Classics of Confucianism, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More recently, thinkers struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in context that span from the religious poetry of the Tanakh to love poetry to rap. Context can be critical to poetics and to the development of poetic genres and forms. For example, poetry employed to record historical events in epics, such as Gilgamesh or Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, will necessarily be lengthy and narrative, while poetry used for liturgical purposes in hymns, psalms, suras and hadiths is likely to have an inspirational tone, whereas elegies and tragedy are intended to invoke deep internal emotional responses. Other contexts include music such as Gregorian chants, formal or diplomatic speech, political rhetoric and invective, light-hearted nursery and nonsense rhymes, and even medical texts. The Polish historian of aesthetics, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, in a paper on "The Concept of Poetry," traces the evolution of what is in fact two concepts of poetry. Tatarkiewicz points out that the term is applied to two distinct things that, as the poet Paul Valéry observes, "at a certain point find union. Poetry [...] is an art based on language. But poetry also has a more general meaning [...] that is difficult to define because it is less determinate: poetry expresses a certain state of mind."  Classical and early modern Western traditions ---Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Notably, Aristotle's Poetics describes the three genres of poetry: the epic, comic, and tragic, and develops rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry of each genre, based on the underlying purposes of that genre. Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to, prose, which was generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure.This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic, "Negative Capability." This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into the twentieth century. During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade. In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered. Modern developments----The use of verse to transmit cultural information continues today. Many Americans know that "in 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue". An alphabet song teaches the names and order of the letters of the alphabet; another jingle states the lengths and names of the months in the Gregorian calendar. Some writers believe poetry has its origins in song. Most of the characteristics that distinguish it from other forms of utterance—rhythm, rhyme, compression, intensity of feeling, the use of refrains—appear to have come about from efforts to fit words to musical forms. In the European tradition the earliest surviving poems, the Homeric and Hesiodic epics, identify themselves as poems to be recited or chanted to a musical accompaniment rather than as pure song. Another interpretation is that rhythm, refrains, and kennings are essentially paratactic devices that enable the reciter to reconstruct the poem from memory. In preliterate societies, these forms of poetry were composed for, and sometimes during, performance. There was a certain degree of fluidity to the exact wording of poems. The introduction of writing fixed the content of a poem to the version that happened to be written down and survive. Written composition meant poets began to compose for an absent reader. The invention of printing accelerated these trends. Poets were now writing more for the eye than for the ear---Lyric poetry---- The development of literacy gave rise to more personal, shorter poems intended to be sung. These are called lyrics, which derives from the Greek lura or lyre, the instrument that was used to accompany the performance of Greek lyrics from about the seventh century BC onward. The Greek's practice of singing hymns in large choruses gave rise in the sixth century BC to dramatic verse, and to the practice of writing poetic plays for performance in their theatres. In more recent times, the introduction of electronic media and the rise of the poetry reading have led to a resurgence of performance poetry. The late 20th-century rise of the singer-songwriter, Rap culture, and the increase in popularity of poetry slams have led to a split between the academic and popular views.
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